Article 19 guarantees six freedoms in the nature of civil rights, which are available only to citizens of India. Directive Principles in India The Directive Principles of State Policy, embodied in Part IV of the Constitution, are directions given to the state to guide the establishment of an economic and social democracy, as proposed by the Preamble.
Supreme court has ruled that these fundamental duties can also help the court to decide the constitutionality of a law passed by the legislature. This exception has been provided since the classes of people mentioned therein are considered deprived and in need of special protection.
This right is, however, subject to public order, morality and health, and the power of the State to take measures for social welfare and reform. A directive may be made enforceable by the courts only when there is a lam on it.
While Parliament often tried to assert the supremacy of the state and DPSPs over Fundamental Rights, the Supreme Court upheld the rights of the individual as enshrined in the Constitutionby giving appropriate judgments.
Now it is not counted as a Fundamental Right. Parliament can amend any part of Constitutionbut could not destroy Basic Structure of Constitution. The court also held that the power of Judicial review cannot be taken out by Parliament. Article 31 C contained two provisions: The present order of precedence is as below: In order to claim the right, it is essential that the educational institution must have been established as well as administered by a religious or linguistic minority.
However, the SC upheld the first provision of the Article 31C. The answer is not as simple as one would think.
All these freedoms are subject to reasonable restrictions that may imposed on them by the State, listed under Article 19 itself. The conflict was between article 16 2 from the chapter of Fundamental Rights and Article 46 of the Constitution.
Article 31 C contained two provisions: Supreme court has ruled that these fundamental duties can also help the court to decide the constitutionality of a law passed by the legislature. The 25th Amendment Act inserted a new Article 31C which contained the following two provisions - 1.
The court also held that the power of Judicial review cannot be taken out by Parliament. For this reason Prof K. The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing: Second clause of Article 31C was as declared as unconstitutional and void as it was against the Basic Structure of the constitution propounded in this case itself.
The Fundamental Duties of citizens were added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment inupon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by the government earlier that year. In the Kesavananda Bharati casethe Supreme Court declared the above second provision of Article 31C as unconstitutional and invalid on the ground that judicial review is a basic feature of the Constitution and hence, cannot be taken away.
In other words, the 42nd Amendment Act accorded the position of legal primacy and supremacy to the Directive Principles over the Fundamental Rights conferred by Articles 14, 19 and The present position is that the Fundamental Rights enjoy supremacy over the Directive Principles.
This exception has been provided since the classes of people mentioned therein are considered deprived and in need of special protection. However, inthe Supreme Court in the case of Maneka Gandhi v.
Supreme Court mandated that the chapter on Fundamental rights in the constitution is sacrosanct and the directive principles have to conform to and run subsidiary to the chapter on Fundamental Rights. Parliament brought the 42nd Amendment Act inwhich extended the scope of above first provision of Article 31C by including within its purview any law to implement any of the DPSPs specified in Part IV of the constitutional and not merely Article 39 b or c.
Later parliament brought the 42nd Amendment Act inwhich extended the scope of the above first provision of Article 31C by including within its purview any law to implement any of the DPSPs specified in Part IV of the constitutional and not merely Article 39 b or c.
If a law is in conflict with a fundamental right, it is declared void by the Supreme Court. The present order of precedence is as below: However, the Fundamental Rights in its basic nature are rights enforceable by the Courts of Law and any act of State or Law that violates fundamental rights are ultra vires whereas the DPSP are not enforceable by Courts of Law  and any act of State or Law which is otherwise valid cannot be declared as void if it is against DPSP.
Secondly, the Directives are non-justiciable. DPSP 39 b and 39 c. DPSPs are not enforceable by law, but just directives to the state.
This decision forced the government to amend the constitution. If a law is made to give effect to DPSPs in Article 39 b and Article 39 c and in the process, the law violates Article 14, Article 19 or Article 31, then the law should not be declared as unconstitutional and void merely on this ground.
The person being detained also has the right to be informed about the grounds of detention, and be permitted to make a representation against it, at the earliest opportunity.In several early cases, the Supreme Court took the literal interpretive approach to Article 37 and ruled that Directive Principles could not over-ride a Fundamental Right, and in case of a conflict between the two, the Fundamental Right.
Relationship between the Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties The Directive Principles have been used to uphold the Constitutional validity of legislations in case of a conflict with the Fundamental Rights. The Fundamental Rights are the rights of the individual citizens guaranteed by the Constitution.
The directive principles lay down various tenets of a welfare state. The conflict arises when the State needs to implement a directive principle and it infringes/ abridges the fundamental rights of the citizens.
The conflict arises when the State needs to implement a directive principle and it infringes/ abridges the fundamental rights of the citizens.
The chapters on the fundamental rights & DPSP were added in order of part III and part IV of the constitution. Fundamental Rights are enshrined under Part III of the Constitution of India and Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) have been enumerated under Part IV of the Constitution of India.
Fundamental Rights and the DPSP are the two wheels of the chariot as an aid to make social and economic democracy a truism . Conflict between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy GKToday The important question is where there is a conflict between the fundamental rights and directive principles, which should prevail?Download